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They can be divided into two primary categories:. They may originate from one of three places: outside the intrinsic conduction pathway ventricular tachycardia , as a supraventricular tachycardia with a bundle branch block or aberrancy, or as a supraventricular tachycardia with AV conduction over an accessory pathway. Enhanced automaticity can occur either spontaneously or be triggered by a stimulus, the latter of which is much less common. The cardiac cells with the potential for enhanced automaticity have enhanced phase 4 depolarization and therefore may depolarize at a rate faster than the pacemaker cells. If the rate of firing in these latent pacemaker cells exceeds that of the sinus node, they become the predominant pacemaker.
Heart cancer primary cardiac tumor is cancer that arises in the heart. Cancerous malignant tumors that begin in the heart are most often sarcomas, a type of cancer that originates in the soft tissues of the body. The vast majority of heart tumors are noncancerous benign.
Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors.